Approximately 1000 B.C. King David captures the city Jebus, and makes it the capital of his United Kingdom. North of the city of David, upon the hilltop of Mount Moriah best known for the Binding of Isaac by Abraham, David’s son Solomon builds the First Temple. Some 400 years later in 586 B.C. the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar conquers the Judean Kingdom and destroys the Temple.
538 B.C. Cyrus, King of Persia, defeats the Babylonians. The exiled Hebrews, under the leadership of Zerubavel and later Ezra, returned to Jerusalem and built the Second Temple. 332 B.C. The Greeks under Alexander the Great conquers the Judean Kingdom.
63 B.C. Pompey conquered Jerusalem and the Roman period began. In the year 70 after a 4 year rebellion against the Romans, the Second Temple was destroyed and the Jewish citizens were forced to leave the city once again.
During the reign of the Emperor Hadrian, and after the defeat of the Bar Kochva rebellion against Rome in 135, the destroyed city of Jerusalem was rebuilt and renamed Aelia Capitolina. The city is rebuilt along the lines of a Roman city. Where The Second Temple once stood, a temple to Jupiter is constructed. During the reign of Constantine the Great (306-337) the city reverts to being called Jerusalem and becomes officially sacred to Christianity. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is built and dedicated in 335. The temple to Jupiter is destroyed and the Temple Mounts remains a ruin.
Muslim armies capture Jerusalem in 638. On the Temple Mount, the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa mosque were built and Islam became the dominant religion of the city. The Dome of the Rock was completed in 691 and for the past 1300 years till today has remained essentially the same as originally built. In the middle of the eighth century the El-Aksa mosque was destroyed by an earthquake and restored toward the end of that century.
1099 the Crusaders capture Jerusalem after a 5 week siege. A general slaughter of Jews and Muslims ensued. Four hundred and sixty years after its capture by the Muslims, the city once again became Christian. The Holy sites on the Temple Mount were declared Christian. The Temple Mount became the seat of the Templers. 1187 Jerusalem is captured by Saladin, ending Christian rule in Jerusalem.
The Period begins with the rule of the Ayyubi (1187-1250) continues with the rule of the Mamaluke (1250-1517) and ends with that of the Ottomans (1517-1917). With the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin (1187) the churches on the Temple Mount were reconverted for Muslim use. Christian and Crusader emblems were removed from all structures.
During World War 1 the country was captured by the British. The League of Nations creates the Mandate of Palestine to be supervised by Great Britain. Due to ongoing fighting the British decided to divide Palestine into a Jewish State and an Arab State. On the 14th of May, 1948, the British Mandate came to an end, Israel declares its independence and the War of Independence begins. In 1949, after the war, Jerusalem became a divided city with the Old City and the Temple Mount occupied by Jordan. During the Six Day War 1967 Israel captures the Old City and the Temple Mount and the city is reunited.